Former carpenter and cabinet maker. Born in 1928 in London. From 1944 to 1946 he worked as a carpenter and cabinet maker. He served in the R.A.F. from 1946 to 1949. From 1949 to 1959 he studied at St. Martin’s School of Art. He participated in the Young Contemporaries exhibitions at the RBA Galleries from 1950. Between 1951 and 1959 he studied at the Royal College of Art, London. He received a travel award to go to Rome in 1955, and travelled widely in Italy and Spain until 1957. From 1958 to 1963 he taught at St. Martin’s School of Art, London. In 1960 he received an award from the Gulbenkian Foundation. In 1961 he was represented at the Paris Biennale. In 1962 he had his first one-man exhibition at the Marlborough Gallery, London. He was Guest Lecturer at the Slade School, London, and at King’s College in the University of Durham, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1962-63. His typographical compositions combined visual symbols and words in an unusual manner (combination pictures). In 1965 he won first prize at the International Exhibition of Graphic Art, Ljubljana. In 1966 he lectured at the School of Visual Arts, New York. He was Guest Lecturer at the Hochschule fÃ¼r Bildende KÃ¼nste, Hamburg, 1971-72. Between 1973 and 1975 he had retrospectives at Rotterdam and Parma.